Information Retrieval & sensemaking
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 9:45 a.m. - 10:45 a.m.
Location: Assembly Room, the Nittany Lion Inn
Collaboration Over Time: Characterizing and Modeling Network Evolution
Abstract: A formal type of scientific and academic collaboration is coauthorship which can be represented by a coauthorship network. Coauthorship networks are among some of the largest social networks and offer us the opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying large-scale real world networks. We construct such a network for the Computer Science field covering research collaborations from 1980 to 2005, based on a large dataset of 451,305 papers authored by 283,174 distinct researchers. By mining this network, we first present a comprehensive study of the network statistical properties for a longitudinal network at the overall network level as well as for the intermediate community level. Major observations are that the database community is the best connected while the AI community is the most assortative, and that the Computer Science field as a whole shows a collaboration pattern more similar to Mathematics than to Biology. Moreover, the small world phenomenon and the scale-free degree distribution accompany the growth of the network. To study the individual collaborations, we propose a novel stochastic model, Stochastic Poisson model with Optimization Tree (Spot), to efficiently predict any increment of collaboration based on the local neighborhood structure. Spot models the non-stationary Poisson process by maximizing the log-likelihood with a tree structure. Empirical results show that Spot outperforms Support Vector Regression by better fitting collaboration records and predicting the rate of collaboration.
Collaborative Sensemaking in Emergency Care
Sharoda A. Paul
Abstract: Sensemaking, the act of understanding a situation, is crucial in time-critical, high-reliability collaborative work. However, current sensemaking research has been mostly focused on the individual level, with little understanding of how sensemaking occurs in groups. We were interested in gaining a conceptual understanding of how sensemaking takes place in collaborative work in order to inform the design of tools to support collaborative sensemaking. Through an ethnographic study of healthcare providers in the emergency department, we examine the characteristics of collaborative sensemaking and the role of technological artifacts in collaborative sensemaking activities.
Automatic Extraction of Data Points and Text Blocks from 2-Dimensional Plots in Digital Documents
Abstract: Two dimensional plots (2-D) in digital documents on the web are an important source of information that is largely under-utilized. In this paper, we outline how data and text can be extracted automatically from these 2-D plots, thus eliminating a time consuming manual process. Our information extraction algorithm identifies the axes of the figures, extracts text blocks like axes-labels and legends and identifies data points in the figure. It also extracts the units appearing in the axes labels and segments the legends to identify the different lines in the legend, the different symbols and their associated text explanations. Our algorithm also performs the challenging task of separating out overlapping text and data points effectively. Our experiments indicate that these techniques are computationally efficient and provide acceptable accuracy.
Organizations and IT
Trends in Information Visualization Research: A Content Analysis in a Referred Journal
Abstract: Compared to other subjects in the field of human-computer interaction, Information Visualization (InfoVis) is a relatively young research topic. However, the number of articles discussing InfoVis is increasing annually. The purpose of this paper is to identify current trends in InfoVis research by conducting a content analysis. The articles published in Journal of Information Visualization between 2002 and 2007 were categorized and the references cited were tallied. This study provides an opportunity to examine research topics, methods, implications and citation trends. The results can be used to review current research trends and to explore potential research directions.
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 1:00p.m. - 2:00 p.m.
Location: Boardroom 2, the Nittany Lion Inn
Supporting informal communication at workplace
Abstract: Email, Instant messaging, and Weblogs were first widely used in public and later brought into workplace and had effective impacts on collaborative work. Micro-blog may make such a transition soon in future. Microblogs enables people to easily share awareness information that they probably won’t do otherwise. Potentially as a new informal communication channel, its possible impacts on collaborative work could be both functionally and socially. This research project aims to gain in-depth understandings of microblogging as a social activity, and explore its potential impacts on collaborative work and design issues in corporate setting, through ethnographic study and scenario-based design approach.
A Survey of Multiple Market Framework Research
Abstract: This paper reviews literatures on the multiple market frameworks. An overview is presented on CAT tournament and JCAT platform which specically address the multiple market issues. The ndings from the past CAT tournament runs are summarized and major factors impacting the market performance such as intra-marginal and extra-marginal traders were discussed. Viewpoints from market microstructure
and competing auctions are supplemented for the comparison with the research approaches taken by CAT tournament organizers.
Pattern-based Analysis of Supply Chain Collaboration - a Business Process Perspective
Abstract: Organizations rely on effective supply chains to successfully compete in the global market. Successful supply chain management integrates individual functions within organization or across difference parties. Supply chain business process integration involves collaborative work between supply chain partners. The concept of business collaboration seeks to organize entire business processes throughout a value chain of multiple parties. In recent years, the concentration of supply chain collaboration has shifted from the inputs and outputs of the processes to the process semantics of individual players. Furthermore, market forces demand changes with supply chain partners. This variability has significant effect on the design and configuration of the processes. Therefore, how to analyze the correctness and robustness of business collaboration has become a key factor of supply chain success.
During the past decades, information technology has enabled many organizations to successfully operate solid collaborative supply networks. Recently, Web services technology prevails to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among supply chain network. Web services are loosely coupled, distributed reusable components that encapsulate discrete functionality and are accessible over standard XML-based Internet protocols such as SOAP and WSDL. The grand vision is of advanced web services, such as WSBPEL, leading to considerable inner- or cross-organization interaction, automated, "on-the-fly" composition of two or more processes to create new collaboration, and new technologies for designing and offering business processes.
In this paper, we view business processes in terms of standard patterns, and describe a pattern compatibility matrix and rules that allow us to simplify the task of checking compatibility between two or more processes because these prerequisite rules can be applied to each pattern separately, thus reducing the search space. We give an algorithm for applying these rules to check process compatibility. If two processes are compatible, we determine whether an adapter is required, and if so, a minimal adapter is generated by another algorithm. If two processes are not compatible, we identify the conflict locations and suggest possible solutions. Furthermore, we calculate the compatibility ratio between two processes, which gives executives a straightforward metric to evaluate the maturity of a business collaboration.
Perception and Communication
A Formal Model for Emerging Coalitions under Network Influence in Humanitarian Relief Coordination
Abstract: Identifying collaborative projects and forming coalitions for those collaborative projects are important means of coordination for humanitarian relief non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Our previous study revealed that collaboration among NGOs is undertaken in a less hierarchical setting and collaboration emerges in a bottom-up fashion. Also, an NGO’s evaluation of candidate collaborative projects and subsequent decisions on forming coalitions are influenced by evaluations done by their peers in the NGO network.
Based on a social influence model, we propose a formal model to simulate the emergence of collaborative projects under the influence of network peers. This model incorporates network topology, organization size of NGOs and strength of ties as network influence factors. The model will be used to inform the future development of an agent-based simulation for NGOs’ coordination in humanitarian relief.
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m.
Location: Boardroom 1, the Nittany Lion Inn
Facebook Applications and Interpersonal Perceptions
Abstract: While many studies have investigated the effects of computer-mediated communication on interpersonal perceptions, little work has been done to investigate how technological affordances might affect such outcomes based on the various heuristics they cue. This research employed a fully-crossed between-subjects factorial design to explore the relationship between (1) number of applications in a Facebook profile (none, low, medium, high), (2) gender of the Facebook profile owner (male, female), and (3) model gender pairing (single, paired) on levels of interpersonal liking, homophily, and behavioral intent. The coolness and distraction heuristics were measured as possible mediators in the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Results indicated that application level directly affects interpersonal liking when interacting with gender and model gender, while coolness and distraction heuristics influence interpersonal liking through more complex pathways. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
user comments and within-article retractions on readers’ perceptions of online newspapers
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between within-article retractions, user comments and the perceived credibility of online newspapers. Approximately 100 undergraduate students will read five news stories containing combinations of the presence or absence of retractions and comments. Participants will then be asked to assess the credibility and journalistic quality of the online newspaper. The results of the research will help newspapers decide if they should include retractions and/or user comments with their news stories by determining whether such interactivity leads to more credibility and quality. Interactivity should either increase credibility by promoting the idea of a free forum and the conscientiousness of the newspaper or, conversely, harm credibility by highlighting journalistic problems.
The Greater the Credibility, the Stronger the Third-Person Effect?
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of internet source credibility on third-person effect in controversial news topics. Everyday prudence has often been common practice for daily life, such as using a hands-free device while driving and using the cellphone; firm evidence is hardly necessary to persuade the exercise of such precautions for they are a prevailing notion called common sense. By using internet sources of varying credibility from low to high, we shall observe the level of third-person effect via controversial content, which contradicts prevailing common sense. For controversial news topics, higher credibility is expected to yield stronger third-person effect.
Social development in IT
Using Information Aesthetics to Inform HCI: A Study of Undergraduates' Choice of Media Player Skins
Abstract: As the field of Human-Computer Interaction expands, researchers have found that the principle of aesthetics plays an important role in interaction and design. Studies on Information Aesthetics, i.e. the combination of Aesthetics and Information Visualization Techniques, can inform the field of HCI by providing evidence of the importance of aesthetics. In our study, we propose an experiment that further understands undergraduates' choice of media player. The study will provide a framework by which we will conduct a study to support the theory and expand the knowledge base in Information Aesthetics. We discuss the implications of the experimental study on HCI and provide further research questions as a result.
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 3:20 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.
Location: Boardroom 2, the Nittany Lion Inn
The Use of Electronic Devices and its Effect on Social Isolation
Abstract: This study intends to explore the effects of the use of electronic devices and level of outgoingness on social isolation in individuals. Using a methodology of unobtrusive observation and coding for verbal and non-verbal indicators, a convenience sample will be collected from three different locations on the Penn State University Park campus. The goal of this study is to see if there is a relationship between the use of electronic devices (MP3 players and cell phones) on an individuals’ level of social isolation in a public setting. It is hypothesized that lower levels of outgoingness combined with higher levels of electronic device use will result in a higher level of social isolation for an individual. Comparing devices it is hypothesized that the use of MP3 players or other entertainment devices will result in a higher level of social isolation than the use of cell phones which are commonly used for communication.
Rethinking Social Capital for the Digital Age
Abstract: The potential for the Internet and other new digital technologies to enhance, if not replace traditional forms of political participation seems likely, especially since as new technologies emerge, unanticipated and creative uses for those technologies emerge as well. This paper uses a combination of perspectives to understand how and if social capital exists in cyberspace and the implications for social movement groups using the Internet as a tool to initiate, and as the site of collective action. If we accept Putnam’s claim that social capital is a necessary prerequisite for collective action, this paper argues that the organization of collective action such as virtual protests and virtual marches, by people who consider themselves part of a community where face-to-face interaction is unneeded, is evidence that social capital exists in cyberspace, and that with each of these acts social capital is being created.
Building A Developmental Learning Community for Women in Computing and Information Science
Abstract: In this paper, we describe a participatory design (PD) process we are using to build an online developmental learning community for women in computer and information systems - a community of women with the shared goal of supporting and collaborating with one another in their education and career goals. The vision is of a community that integrates high school students, university students, and professional women in both industry and research. We have conceptualized the PD process as one of seeding, evolution, and reseeding . In this paper we present the problem we are addressing, our approach, and our findings thus far.
Use of CSCW systems
Mobile Computing in Developing States
Abstract: The digital divide widens as Information and Communication Technologies continue to see new innovations and advancements, yet fail to penetrate the rural and developing regions. Current research in bridging this digital divide views mobile computing as an effective means of bringing technology to the masses, rural and urban alike, given these tools' mobility and inexpensiveness. This paper reviews the existing literature in this field. Nation wide studies are reviewed. Also, specific applications are studied to examine their effectiveness and depth of penetration. Finally, significant questions are raised that address the existing gaps in this field.
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 3:20 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.
Location: Boardroom 1, the Nittany Lion Inn
On-line Course Registration Systems Usability
Louis-Marie Ngamassi Tchouakeu
Abstract: Electronic course registration systems allow students to select courses. The ability for the student to access course offerings through these on-line systems as well as the ability to complete various administrative functions allows for better management of curriculum decisions in the context of academic objectives. The objective of these systems to make this process more convenient and easier to achieve has met with varying levels of success. This study looks closely at one particular system, that being the e-Lion system at the Pennsylvania State University. Study of such a system is notable because it is through these systems that universities administration completes the business of education in the form of payment and collection of tuitions and fees. The results of this study are of interest to business practitioners fielding on-line systems in the areas of e-commerce and e-learning as well as many others, providing considerable insight into the importance of system usability.
Predicting quality of tags
Abstract: We describe an analytic model and an empirical study of tags as information scent. We built a rational model of tagging behavior, and used it to conceptualize tag "quality”. We designed and carried out a user study to explore what attributes of tags and taggers predict the user-rated "quality" of tags. We found that frequency best predicted tag quality, while information entropy provided further refinement. We found that people rate self-generated tags as higher in quality than tags generated by others, but that the highest quality tags generated by others are rated as highly as self generated tags. We derived a regression model for tag quality and discussed implications for social computing.
Solving ePortfolio Assessment Problems using Web 2.0
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of current research on using electronic portfolios for assessment in K-16 education. There is an emphasis on providing solutions to two problems facing educators today. First, how can educators implement electronic portfolio formative assessment in the classroom? Second, how can educators change an electronic portfolio system to allow for student-centered electronic portfolios and an electronic portfolio assessment management system? The solutions to these problems are described in detail using ideas of Web 2.0 technologies, the concept of a netfolio, and the semantic web.
Social Network and Community
Who Learns Better in E-Learning
Abstract: Computer technology has been widely employed in ESL classrooms (Sullivan & Pratt 1996; Warschauer 1996; Ortega 1997; Hirvela 2007); still few studies so far have investigated an entirely e-learning context. (Boyd 2008) Online learning constitutes a new community of practice, in which the learners establish new routines and negotiate different meanings through the mediation of computers. It is worthwhile to investigate what constitutes a strategic learner in online environment.
In this study, I looked at an entirely web-based ESL writing course at Penn State, and conducted a focal analysis of two students, with an attempt to tease out their motivation and learning strategies in the online course. Specifically I explored two research questions: (1) What makes a strategic learner in an online writing course? (2) How does motivation impact on students’ performance in online learning? Data from different sources were collected in order to provide a triangulated analysis of the learners, including online activity logs, writing assignments, journal entries, the instructor’s observation notes, post-hoc interviews, etc.
The results indicate that computer is neither an all-power machine nor a simple “add-on” technique to the existing learning process. Learners who have good self-regulatory skills and integrative motivation tend to benefit more from the online learning experience, whereas those who have difficulties in regulating themselves through computers and who has an instrumental motivation are more likely to be frustrated. Another finding is that the physical distance created by the computer could be a problem for those who do not have good strategies in approaching a more capable person and seeking for support. In a word, autonomous learning is not automatically realized by introducing computer technology into writing classes. Learners need to be guided in how to take responsibilities for their learning and accommodate to the new learning environment.
Time: Friday, February 20, 2009 3:20 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.
Location: Assembly Room, the Nittany Lion Inn
iSchools and Social Identity: A Social Network Analysis of the IST community
Abstract: Social Identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986) was originally developed to understand inter-group behavior and discrimination. According to this theory, a person has, in addition to his “personal self”, several other selves which correspond to the groups with which the individual is affiliated with. An individual’s social identity is a self-concept derived from the membership with social groups (Hogg and Vaughan, 1998). The behavior of the individual is triggered by the social context and the individual’s perceived affinity with a specific group has a tremendous influence on the behavior. Humans tend to continuously bracket themselves and others into categories and in this process, they choose to identify with certain groups and choose not to identify with certain other groups. This identification is critical and helps them to develop a coherent self-image and self-esteem (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). However, this does create biases in their behavior, since this categorization lead to the formulation of in-groups and out-groups, the former they choose to increasingly identify with and the later, they choose to dis-identify with. In short, individuals behave differently at different times and this behavior is shaped by the individual’s perceived identification with a specific group at a particular moment. On an interdisciplinary research setting like iSchools (Green and Warbington, 2004), the concept of Social Identity does play a very important role. With faculty members and students from different backgrounds, the individual’s perceived identification with a specific group might impact the current push within the iSchool movement towards achieving inter-disciplinarity.
In this paper, we use Social Network analysis to figure out the nature of interaction among various actants (Latour, 1987) at the College of Information Sciences and Technology (IST), The Pennsylvania State University, University Park. With the advent of several SNA Visualization tools like Netdraw and Pajek, the field of Social Network analysis is picking up momentum and a lot of researchers from many discrete disciplines are finding it very useful for their research and are adopting Social Network Analysis. However, most of the past Social Network Analysis done in this area tends to focus more on the individual faculty member and the nature of the collaboration between them. However, we would like to extend this approach by trying to examine the nature of relationship between different research centers and labs. Thus, we try to understand the effects of Social Identity on Clique behavior (McPherson et al. 2001). This paper tends to focus more at the “inter-group” or “intraorganizational” level than the individual level alone and thereby, we would examine the influence of social identity on the nature of faculty collaboration.
Designing for New Media in Art Education: Assessing digital natives' reactions to a museum gallery space without Web 2.0 technology
Heather Hughes & Mike Montalto-Rook
Abstract: In Museum Gallery Spaces, it is rare to find internet connectivity that harnesses the Web 2.0 technology movement. This study seeks to understand whether this issue affects digital natives' use and reaction to museum gallery spaces. Our experiment will follow students in an Art Education Course at Pennsylvania State University as they enter and use a campus museum gallery for the first time over a period of a week. The aim of the study is to determine if new media could play a role in museum gallery spaces. We discuss the implications of the experimental study and provide further research questions as a result.
Online Videos: Show Me the Money!
Abstract: Video has taken o as the primary medium for user engagement on the Internet. A recent study has shown that an average Internet user spends about 3.25 hours every month watching online videos. The increasing broadband penetration, usage of Internet and the viral nature of video distribution points to the fact that videos are very lucrative source of monetization on the Internet. However, so far the revenue generated from videos has been a disappointingly small fraction of the overall Internet market. In this paper, I discuss the issues that have made online videos difficult to monetize, especially in the context of in-stream video advertisements. I review a video advertisement insertion software - Vadeo, in the light of these issues. The two main research problems addressed are - a) can we automatically determine good advertisement insertion points inside a video? and b) can we select advertisements intelligently - to reflect the context of the video itself? Both these research questions are fundamental to making an advertisement campaign successful in terms of target audience impact.
Web Traveller Policies for Images Published on Social Networks
Topics: Security and Privacy, Social Networks
Abstract: Social networks enable a form of self expression for users, and help them to socialize and share content with other users. One of the most popular types of content shared on social networks is pictures:. social networks enable users to associate a picture with an individual’s profile, whereby the anonymity which the internet affords is often lost as the picture allows us to uniquely identify the profile holders and the other users of the network that appear in them. Further, these pictures not only allow identification, but can often reveal a lot of information about an individual including his friends, drinking habits and other socializing traits. While many social networks offer methods to restrict who can view a picture, they do not afford the users much control over the fact that a given picture may be downloaded and subsequently used (and possibly misused) by someone else. In particular, the privacy control imposed by the picture owner may be easily bypassed if the pictures are uploaded with a more public view setting. Furthermore, social networks do not enforce any control over who can upload or download an image once this is made public. In this project we address this inequity by presenting support for a new type of policies, referred to as web-traveler policies. The policies allow the user to specify who can view, upload or download a given image. In short, we present social network which allows the owner of a picture to specify a policy which travels with that image as long as it is hosted on the given social network. We further explore the possibility of extending the controls to allow the user to specify policies which can travel with the image across different social networks in particular and the web in general using the concept of mashups. A web-crawler is used to gather all the instances of a policy-protected on the web. Once an instance of an image is found, the enforcer is triggered in order to enforce the policies. Further, the policies of that instance of the image are also modified to match those set by its owner. AJAX scripts are used for controlling uploads and downloads of the image appearing on the other sites.